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EAR Manual: European Area of Recognition

The European Area of Recognition - EAR Manual (second edition, 2023) is a recognition manual for credential evaluators of the ENIC-NARIC Networks. It is a practical translation of the Lisbon Recognition and provides clear standards and guidelines for recognising foreign qualifications. The goal is to help credential evaluators apply the principles of the Lisbon Recognition Convention in their daily recognition work. The EAR Manual has been endorsed by the 47 Ministers of Education from the European Higher Education Area in the 2012 Bucharest Communiqué.

Developed by ENIC-NARICs, the EAR Manual aims to bring clarity to recognition practices across European countries and to contribute to a joint recognition area of higher education. It seeks to establish a common methodology for recognising qualifications, based on agreed standards and guidelines. This manual makes the recognition process clear for stakeholders such as evaluators, universities, students, and policymakers. Topics covered include accreditation, authenticity, credits, grades, substantial differences, frameworks, and handling applications from refugees without documentation. Each chapter includes flowcharts, introductions, practical examples, and references for further reading.